Cyber Security Deadline For Mariners

Experts believe that more crew cyber training is needed as the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 2021 deadline to incorporate cyber security into management systems looms. Just how much training is required, or whether a designated person aboard shall be assigned as a cyber expert on board, is still up for discussion.
 
From 1 January 2021, ship-owners must include cyber security in ship safety management systems under amendments in IMO’s International Ship Management (ISM) Code. Ship-owners and managers have just four months before a key deadline in cyber risk management is passed and ship security comes under greater scrutiny.
 
Preparations should already be underway to include cyber risks as part of ship’s safety, said Norton Rose Fulbright partner Philip Roche, who said this should include training and security-breach drills. “There are many threats out there,” said Mr Roche during Riviera Maritime Media’s ‘Minimising cost and disruption after a cyber event’ webinar on 6 August, which was the concluding event of a the  Maritime Cyber Security Webinar Week. Ship-owners “need to consider risk management and cyber-attack recovery” Roche  said. “Good safety management requires a plan to be in place now if the ship is to be seaworthy.... cyber security is another risk to be managed as part of the safety management of the ship.
 
This could be policed in the future by port state control, whose inspectors may request information on cyber risk management for a vessel as part of its seaworthiness.
 
In a test for seaworthiness, the ship “must have a degree of fitness, which a prudent ship-owner would require the vessel to have at the commencement of its voyage”. This degree of fitness extends beyond the physical condition of the ship and includes having properly trained crew able to deal with contingencies arising at sea. Such tests are to be considered against the current state of knowledge of the risks and regulations in the industry. “This means port state control would take an interest in cyber training and consider cyber risk management and attack recovery,” said Mr Roche.
 
To ensure a ship is seaworthy today, the ship needs to have reasonable measures to protect against a cyber attack, including trained crews who have good cyber hygiene practices and are aware of risks, and a plan to detect, deal with and recover from a cyber-attack.
 
ISM Code
 
To deal with and recover from a cyber attack, there is plenty of shipping industry guidance available form various maritime organsiations, including the IMO and BIMCO. Key to this preparation is following the ISM Code, which requires that the safety-management objectives of the company provide for safe practices in ship operations and a safe working environment. To follow the ISM Code, owners assess all identified risks to ships, personnel and the environment, establish appropriate safeguards, and continuously improve the safety-management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships, including preparing for emergencies related both to safety and environmental protection.
 
Owners can look at IMO guidance on cyber security which covers developing and implementing activities and plans to provide resilience and to restore systems necessary for shipping operations or services impaired due to a cyber event and ship operators need to identify measures to back-up and restore the cyber systems necessary for shipping operations impacted by a cyber event. They must also distinguish between an attack affecting IT and an attack on operational technology (OT)which includes cyber threats to ship propulsion control, steering, navigation and communications systems.
 
Cyber Risks in Ports
 
Further digitalisation in ports is increasing their vulnerability to hackers and cyber-attacks. As more technology is linked to the internet, the frequency of these threats and chances of a successful breach increases.  Cyber security needs to be improved in ports before internet of things (IoT) is introduced into port infrastructure.  With more automation in ports, some of these networks are overlooked by IT teams and could be vulnerable to hackers.
 
Cyber Breach Response
 
In an initial assessment of a cyber breach, a response team must find out how the incident occurred, which IT and/or OT systems were affected, then how that happened. The extent to which the commercial and/or operational data is affected needs to be established, and to what extent any threat remains. Following this initial assessment, a ship’s data, IT and OT systems need to be cleaned, recovered and restored as far as possible to an operational condition by removing threats from the system and restoring software.  A thorough investigation is then needed to understand the causes and consequences of a cyber incident, with support from an external expert, if appropriate. 
 
To prevent a re-occurrence, sip-owners need implement actions from the outcome of the investigation, addressing any inadequacies in technical and/or procedural protection measures. Change on board procedures and work culture to prevent another  cyber breach. 
 
“There needs to be constant reminders of cyber hygiene and someone needs to keep an eye on board, perhaps as a cyber security officer .... Crew can “act as a buffer to reduce the effects of a successful attack” if they are trained and regularly practice, said Mr Roche.
 
Guidance: Key Issues To Address In Onboard Contingency Plans
 
The following is a non-exhaustive list of cyber incidents for contingency plans to consider:
 
• Loss of availability of electronic navigational equipment or loss of integrity of navigation-related data.
• Loss of availability or integrity of external data sources, including but not limited to Global Navigation Satellite Services.
• Loss of essential connectivity with the shore, including but not limited to the availability of Global Maritime Distress and Safety System communications.
• Loss of availability of industrial control systems, including propulsion, auxiliary systems and other critical systems, as well as loss of integrity of data management and control.
• The event of a ransomware or denial or service incident.
  
IMO:        GovUK:          ImproSec:      Safety At Sea:    Riviera:  
 
You Might Also Read: 
 
Maritime Data For Sale On the Dark Web:
 
« British Cyber Security Market 2020
Schoolchildren Are Better At Cyber Security Than Their Teachers »

CyberSecurity Jobsite
Perimeter 81

Directory of Suppliers

Authentic8

Authentic8

Authentic8 transforms how organizations secure and control the use of the web with Silo, its patented cloud browser.

MIRACL

MIRACL

MIRACL provides the world’s only single step Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) which can replace passwords on 100% of mobiles, desktops or even Smart TVs.

Resecurity, Inc.

Resecurity, Inc.

Resecurity is a cybersecurity company that delivers a unified platform for endpoint protection, risk management, and cyber threat intelligence.

NordLayer

NordLayer

NordLayer is an adaptive network access security solution for modern businesses — from the world’s most trusted cybersecurity brand, Nord Security. 

ON-DEMAND WEBINAR: Navigating cloud security: The importance of posture management tools

ON-DEMAND WEBINAR: Navigating cloud security: The importance of posture management tools

Watch this webinar to see how cloud security posture management (CSPM) tools can fit into your cloud security strategy.

Casaba Security

Casaba Security

Casaba are specialists in software security providing managed Software Development Lifecycle services as well as products for security testing.

AKS IT Services

AKS IT Services

AKS IT Services (an ISO 9001:2015 and ISO 27001:2013 certified company) is a leading IT Security Services and Solutions provider.

Next Horizon

Next Horizon

In the Next Horizon incubator, new disruptive models are being developed in Industry 4.0, Automated Driving and Internet-of-Things.

BetaDen

BetaDen

BetaDen provides a revolutionary platform for businesses to develop next-generation technology, such as the internet of things and industry 4.0.

Elysium Analytics

Elysium Analytics

Elysium Cognitive Security Analytics delivers the latest and most flexible security system to reduce cost and complexity while providing unmatched scalability.

Raonsecure

Raonsecure

Raonsecure is one of Korea’s leading ICT security software companies – providing a variety of PC and mobile security solutions to financial institutions, government, and enterprise.

Systems Assessment Bureau (SAB)

Systems Assessment Bureau (SAB)

Systems Assessment Bureau is an internationally recognized ISO Certification Body with a unique vision of “Excel together with global standards”.

Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3)

Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3)

The Internet Crime Complaint Center provide the public with a reporting mechanism to submit information to the FBI concerning suspected Internet-facilitated criminal activity.

Guardian Digital

Guardian Digital

Guardian Digital makes email safe for business. Threat-ready business email protection. Fully supported.

Psybersafe

Psybersafe

Psybersafe is a hands-on, behaviour-changing training system that keeps your people and your business cyber safe.

Space Hellas

Space Hellas

Space Hellas is a dynamic, established System Integrator and Value Added Solutions Provider, holding a leading position in the high technology arena.

Nullify

Nullify

Nullify is your automated security sentry that continuously finds and fixes security issues across your codebase.

Infisign

Infisign

Infisign addresses the challenges of traditional IAM systems and offers a comprehensive solution for modern identity management.

CYTUR

CYTUR

CYTUR provide trusted and secured maritime cybersecurity solutions to keep ships safe, protecting them, their crews, cargo and all stakeholders from maritime cyber threats.

RightCue Assurance

RightCue Assurance

RightCue Assurance identify opportunities for improvement in the Information Security for your organisation and work with you to reduce cyber risk.

DACTA Global

DACTA Global

DACTA was established with the aim of simplifying the perception of complexity surrounding digital security challenges and solutions.